||This report was commissioned by EQUINET to look at the characteristics and extent of private sector involvement in health financing and provision in East and Southern African countries. It synthesises available information on the private health sector in the following ESA countries: Angola, Botswana, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Kenya, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, the United Republic of Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe. For each country the core health financing issues, including available NHA data, are briefly discussed. As external financial resources play a key role in the funding of private sector initiatives (both for-profit and not-for-profit), the extent of external funding is also considered. Thereafter, an overview is provided of the presence (or not) of private health insurance, and different types of private providers. A trend observed in this review is the expansion of South African private health care organisations into other African countries.