Participatory action research methods, tools and ethics

On this page you will find links to materials, videos and other resources on the methods used in PAR. Links are provided to examples of the tools used, and to discussions and guidelines on ethical issues in PAR. The resources are in various languages. The most recently published resources are shown first. Please send us your resources to include on this page.

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Making Change Visible: Evaluating Efforts to Advance Social Participation in Health, An Implementer’s Resource

Loewenson R; Simpson S; Dudding R; Obando F; Beznec P; TARSC, Shaping health,2021

If you are responsible for—or engaged or interested in—advancing social/community participation in health in your local area, we developed this resource for you. There are a variety of resources available on how to organise SPH, but there is limited guidance on how to evaluate its effectiveness. This publication fills that gap for those in a position to make decisions or take actions to advance SPH. This resource helps you to evaluate your efforts on SPH, to answer the question: what differences are our SPH efforts making, using a range of participatory tools.

Participatory Methods: People working together around the world to generate ideas and action for social change

Participation, Inclusion and Social Change Cluster at the Institute of Development Studies, Sussex University ,2021

This Participatory Methods website provides resources to generate ideas and action for inclusive development and social change. It explains what participatory methods are, where and how they are used, and their problems and potentials, focusing on participatory approaches to programme design, monitoring and evaluation; to learning, research and communication in organisations, networks and communities; and to citizen engagement in political processes. This site is regularly updated and offers access to many useful and thought-provoking resources.

Participatory Methods: People working together around the world to generate ideas and action for social change

Participation, Inclusion and Social Change Cluster at the Institute of Development Studies, Sussex University ,2020

This Participatory Methods website provides resources to generate ideas and action for inclusive development and social change. It explains what participatory methods are, where and how they are used, and their problems and potentials, focusing on participatory approaches to programme design, monitoring and evaluation; to learning, research and communication in organisations, networks and communities; and to citizen engagement in political processes. This site is regularly updated and offers access to many useful and thought-provoking resources.

Building a movement for health

Bodini C (edited by), People's Health Movement and Third World Health Aid,2017

This book is an aid in the struggle for health equity, which is the struggle for liberation from hunger, poverty and unjust socioeconomic structures. It's a tool to support movement-building at the country level and contribute to the strengthening of a global movement for health. It can be used by people who want to know more about the struggle for health in the world and about the People's Health Movement, by activists who seek inspiration and want to learn from other's experience, by groups involved in PAR and capacity-building, by scholars who research on civil society engagement in health.

Community Tool Box. Evaluating the Initiative

Center for Community Health and Development,2017

This toolkit aids in developing an evaluation of a community program or initiative through identifying key stakeholders and what they care about them. It describes the program or initiative’s framework or logic model, focusing on the evaluation design, gathering credible evidence and what features affect credibility of the evaluation. It also include an outline and implement an evaluation plan, how to make sense of the data and justify conclusions, use the information to celebrate, make adjustments and communicate lessons learned. The toolkit also provides some links to useful resources.

Cómo se construye un movimiento para la salud

Bodini C (editado por), Movimiento para la Salud de los Pueblos y Medecina para el Tercer Mundo,2017

Este libro es una ayuda en la lucha por la salud, que es la lucha por la liberación del hambre, la pobreza y las estructuras socio-económicas injustas. Es una herramienta para construir movimientos a nivel país y mundial. Puede ser utilizado por personas que quieran saber más sobre la lucha por la salud en el mundo y el Movimiento para la Salud de los Pueblos, activistas que buscan inspiración de la experiencia de otras, grupos involucrados en la creación de capacidades y la investigación-acción participativa, académicas que investigan el compromiso de la sociedad civil con la salud.

Initiating a participatory action research process in the Agincourt health and socio–demographic surveillance site

O Wariri, L D'Ambruoso, R Twine, S Ngobeni, M van der Merwe, B Spies, K Kahn, S Tollman, RG Wagner, P Byass,2017

This work reported on initiating a participatory action research (PAR) process in the Agincourt Health and Socio-Demographic Surveillance Site (HDSS) in Mpumalanga province, rural northeast South Africa. The researchers initiated a PAR process to gain local knowledge and prioritize actions. The process was acceptable to those involved, and there was willingness and commitment to continue. The study provided a basis from which to gain support to develop fuller forms of participatory research in this setting. The next steps are to build deeper involvement of participants in the process.

Participatory action research

Baum F; MacDougall C; Smith D ,2017

The article defines PAR, its distinctive methods and its application to health. It discusses the role of power, lived experience and critical reflection in PAR and critically reflects on what this means for professional practice.

Poems - Infitun, Chloe, Chile

Ibacache J,2017

Persona de ascendencia indigena chono-williche en Archipiélago de Chiloe , con cuadro clínico poco claro para medicina occidental. Se inicia Investigacion-Acción-Participativa (PAR) para entender la percepcion del paciente y de su familia. Esto permite iniciar un "dialogo de saberes" entre medicina occidental y medicina tradicional que lleva a que paciente y familia estén mejor del Sindrome Poems, causado por Infitun o Mal por Envidia, según percepción familiar. Esto video permite la adherencia a ambos sistemas de salud. Camara. Luis Tapia y direccion. Jaime Ibakatxe Burgos

The Barefoot Guide Connection

The Barefoot Guide Writer's Collective,2017

This site provides free download of a range of interesting, thought provoking manuals which aim to share social change practice from around the world. To date there are 5 manuals : BFG1: Working with Organizations and Social Change; BFG2: Learning Practices in Organizations and Social Change; BFG3: Mobilizing Religious Health Assets for Transformation; BFG4: Exploring the Real Work of Social Change and BFG5: Mission Inclusion: Stories and practices of building a world where all belong.

The Community Tool Box

Center for Community Health and Development,2017

The Community Tool Box is an online resource for work with people from different cultures. It sensitises to and raises strategies and activities for addressing racial prejudice. It provides a step by step guidance on how to conduct a community assessment, develop a strategic plan, write a grant, or carry out a participatory evaluation.

Champions for social change: Photovoice ethics in practice and ‘false hopes’ for policy and social change

Johnston G: Global public health, 11 (5–6), 799–811,2016

This article is part of a special issue on Visual Methodologies. It examines the concerns of raising false hopes or unrealistic expectations among the participants of photovoice projects as they are positioned to be champions for social change in their communities. The paper poses a series of unanswered questions about the ethics of photovoice projects. The ethical concern centres on the focus of policy change as a key initiative; yet, most projects remain vague about the implementation and outcomes of this focus.

Emergent ethics in participatory video: negotiating the inherent tensions as group processes evolve

Shaw J,2016

Community practitioner-researchers are enthusiastic about participatory video’s potential in opening space for new relational dynamics to evolve across difference. In reality, practice involves negotiation between the intention to build expressive agency and the (often conflicting) agendas of the variously positioned project actors. There is an ethical need to acknowledge the messy reality of the participatory video context, interrogate the power dynamics as processes evolve and understand participants’ experiences of taking part.

Participatory visual methodologies in global public health, Global Public Health, 11:5-6, 521-527

C.M. Mitchell; M. Sommer ,2016

This article is the introduction to a 'Special Issue on Participatory Visual Methodologies in Global Public Health' published by the journal Global Public Health. The introduction serves to map out a range of participatory visual approaches, as well as critical issues related to the use of participatory visual methodologies in global health. In so doing, it offers both an overview of these innovative practices in global health and a consideration of some of the key questions that researchers might ask themselves in design and implementation.

Skills building on methods and tools for learning from action in participatory action research: building action learning within affected actors and communities

Loewenson R; Flores W; Amaya A; London L; Koffa Kun K, Report of the workshop at the Global Symposium for Health Systems Research,2016

This three hour participatory skills session at the 2016 Global Symposium on Health Systems Research discussed methods/ tools to build learning from action as a key element of PAR and the implications for what this means for an understanding of ‘resilience’ in health systems. It drew on approaches and experience from Africa, Latin America and globally to discuss the methods/tools, their application and their integration in health systems and input from moderated discussion on the pra4equity list prior to the session.

Investigación-Acción Participativa En Sistemas De Salud: Una Guía De Métodos

Loewenson R; Laurell AC; Hogstedt C; D’Ambruoso L; Shroff Z,2015

Esta Guía de metodos promueve la comprensión del término ‘investigación-acción participativa’ (IAP) y ofrece información sobre sus paradigmas, métodos y usos, particularmente en el ámbito de políticas y sistemas de salud. La Guía recoge experiencias y trabajos publicados de todas las regiones del mundo y explica: las caracaterísticas claves de la IAP así como la historia y los paradigmas de conocimiento que la informan; los procesos y métodos utilizados en la IAP, y asuntos de comunicación, informes, institucionalización y usos de la investigación-acción en política y sistema de salud.

Participatory action research in health systems: a methods reader

Loewenson R; Laurell AC; Hogstedt C; D’Ambruoso L; Shroff Z,2014

The result of team work, this reader draws on experience and published work from all regions globally and explains: • key features of participatory action research and the history and knowledge paradigms that inform it; • processes and methods used in participatory action research, including innovations and developments in the field and the ethical and methods issues in implementing it; and • communication, reporting, institutionalization and use of participatory action research in health systems.

Participatory Action Research: New Uses, New Contexts, New Challenges

Amaya, A.A; Yeates, N. Poverty Reduction and Regional Integration (PRARI) Working Paper 15-6,2014

This paper reviews why PAR is relevant for research uptake and impact agendas, and considers its opportunities, tensions, dilemmas and limits in impact contexts internationally, including where these involve ‘non-standard’ PAR populations. Participatory research raises a number of challenges -- professional, political, logistical. In addition, how PAR is applied in practice and the context of that practice bear significantly on the quality and nature of the research outcomes. The relationship between PAR and policy change as a research topic in its own right is also explored.

Using Participatory Process Evaluation to Understand the Dynamics of Change in a Nutrition Education Programme

Cornwall, A. IDS Working Paper 437, Institute of Development Studies,2014

Participatory visualisation methods associated with PAR have been widely used as tools for learning and accountability. In this article, Cornwall reflects on lessons learnt from using these methods in a participatory process evaluation of an educational programme aimed at addressing chronic malnutrition in an East African country. She explores the educative and empowering dimensions of participatory visualisation methods, and considers the contribution that these methods can make to effective evaluation.

De fracaso y frustración en el trabajo de campo: cómo asumir la ética de la representación en la investigación participativa (Of failure and frustration in field work – how to assume the ethics of representation in participatory research)

Oslender U,2013

One of the lacunas of methodological engagement in PAR is how to address issues of fracaso, or failure, where the academic-activist him/herself has experienced deep disappointment or frustration in the way the research situation unfolded Otra carencia en los debates metodológicos se refiere a la falta de enfrentar abiertamente problemas de fracaso, decepción o frustración que el académico-activista pueda haber experimentado en el trabajo de campo. This paper critically examines this from the author's personal experience.

Participatory Methods

Institute of Development Studies,2013

An explosion of new methods, technologies, theories and approaches has taken place around the world, adding enormously to the range of available methods for participation. Increasingly sophisticated visual methods and tools for networking and data collection give us access to different forms of knowledge and political action. This website is a repository of examples from all over the world.

Who are we to care? Exploring the relationship between participation, knowledge and power in health systems. TARSC, Zimbabwe, and COPASAH

Kaim, B,2013

This paper explores how the interaction between people’s participation, knowledge and power effects the functioning of health systems. It pays particular attention to the importance of building people centred health systems which give voice and agency to the poor and most vulnerable in communities. It explores the role PAR plays in this process. The paper concludes by asking a series of questions to provoke and deepen our thinking on ways we can overcome obstacles to building a more just and equitable health system , from community to global level as a strategy for change.

Community Health Workers Support Community-based Participatory Research Ethics: Lessons Learned along the Research-to-Practice-to-Community Continuum

Smith S; Blumenthal D ,2012

This article examines experiences and lessons learned from involving community health workers in research enabling the the community to gain some degree of control over the research intervention and operationalizing ethical principles in community based participatory research.

Introduction to Qualitative Research Methodology: A Training Manual

Kielmann, K; Cataldo, C; and Seeley, J Department for International Development (DfID), UK, under the Evidence for Action Research Programme Consortium on HIV Treatment and Care (2006-2011).,2012

This manual is organised around three main goals: to introduce you to qualitative thinking and a qualitative approach in research; to equip you with knowledge to be able to plan and conduct selected qualitative research methods; and to enable you to process the data obtained through these methods, and to undertake preliminary steps towards analysis of qualitative data. The manual emphasises that qualitative research is not just about applying a different set of tools to gain knowledge, but rather, involves a fundamental shift in the approach to research, and description of reality.

Participatory Research Methods: A Methodological Approach in Motion

Bergold, J & Thomas, S Forum Qualitative Research Volume 13, No. 1, Art. 30 January 2012,2012

This article serves as an introduction to the FQS special issue "Participatory Qualitative Research." and focuses on those areas in which further work needs to be done. They include fundamental principles of participatory research, such as democratic-theory considerations, the concept of "safe space," participation issues, and ethical questions. The authors also focus on practical research considerations regarding the role and tasks of the various participants; specific methodological approaches; and quality criteria, that is, arguments justifying a participatory approach.

Understanding participatory action research: A qualitative research methodology option

MacDonald, C Canadian Journal of Action Research Volume 13, Issue 2, 2012,2012

This paper contextualizes PAR in terms of its history, principles, definitions, and strengths, as well as discuss challenges and practical suggestions for using PAR. In addition, it examines focus groups and interviews as methods for data collection, the role of PAR in education, and the types of research for which PAR is best suited.

Understanding Participatory Action Research: A qualitative research methodology option

MacDonald, C. Canadian Journal of Action Research Vol 13 Issue 2,2012

This paper contextualizes PAR in terms of its history, principles, definitions, and strengths, as well as discusses challenges and practical suggestions for using PAR. It examines focus groups and interviews as methods for data collection, the role of PAR in education, and the types of research for which PAR is best suited.

A Guide to the Literature on Participatory Research with Youth

Ollner A, The Assets Coming Together for Youth Project York University,2010

This practical tool contains summaries of articles on research that has engaged with youth as active participants. The articles were selected based on the level of participation of youth within the research process; articles describing research in which youth participation consisted of being interviewed were not included. Categories include: innovative arts-based methods; youth as co-researchers; empowerment; youth participation in evaluation of youth services; youth in communities; civic participation/social action; and critical perspectives on engaging youth in research.

Best practices in the reporting of participatory action research: Embracing both the forest and the trees

Smith L; Rosenzweig L; Schmidt M ,2010

The article presents best-practices suggestions for writing about PAR based on an analysis of PAR articles published between 2000 and 2008.

Critical reflections on social injustice and participatory action research: The case of the indigenous Ayta community in the Philippines

Estacioa E; Marks D ,2010

The paper reflects on the indigenous Ayta community in the Philippines on how best to address social injustice in their context. the outcome of the study reveled the various problems associated with the use of PAR during the research. It also reflects on the ethical implications of facilitating action research particularly on the health and welfare of those who were engaged. The results revealed various complexities that needs the attention of those in power to ensure the role of those who are socially disadvantaged.

On PAR - Using Participatory Action Research to Improve Early Intervention

Crane, P and O’Regan, M Social Work and Human Services, Faculty of Health Queensland University of Technology Published by the Department of Families, Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs, Australian Government,2010

This manual is designed to assist human service practitioners and agencies in Australia, and the communities they work with, to enhance their skills in undertaking Participatory Action Research, and, in so doing improve the situations of people who are vulnerable. The manual is divided into six sections: 1: About Participatory Action Research 2: A Walk Through the Research Process 3: Key Considerations in Doing PAR 4: Practical Strategies and Tools 5. Case Examples 6. Resources

Participatory action research approaches and methods

Gibson N,2010

This book offers a critical introduction to understanding and working with PAR in different social, spatial and institutional contexts in three parts. The first part explores the intellectual, ethical and pragmatic contexts of PAR; the development and diversity of approaches to PAR; perspectives on PAR as a form of power. Part two is a critical exploration of the politics, places and practices of PAR.. Part three reflects on how effective PAR is, including its products and processes, participatory learning, benefits and challenges, and working between research, action, activism and change.

Participatory Action Research: An educational tool for citizen-users of community mental health services

Watters, J; Comeau, S; Restall, G. Department of Occupational Therapy, School of Medical Rehabilitation, University of Manitoba,2010

This educational tool is a resource for community mental health citizen-users interested in making a difference in their communities. It aims to increase their knowledge of and involvement in PAR as a tool for change in community mental health services . The manual looks at the link between PAR and community mental health, why and how to use PAR and gives a few examples of how this methodology has been used in Canada to improve mental health services

Reflections on doing participatory research in health: participation, method and power

Bourke L,2009

This paper reports and on the experience of facilitating three participatory research projects in southeast Australia and discusses the issues it raises on participation, method and power. The experience raised issues of negotiation, inclusion, quality of research, differing agendas and roles and the integrity of those involved. The paper discusses these issues and how decisions are made around them.

EQUINET Participatory Methods toolkit: Organising People’s Power for Health

Loewenson R; Kaim B; Chikomo F; Mbuyita S; Makemba A ,2006

This toolkit was produced in response to this need, drawing on the experiences and knowledge of individuals and institutions working in this field. The toolkit shows how participatory methods can be used to raise community voice, both through health research and by training communities to take effective action and become involved in the health sector. Generally, this toolkit aims to strengthen capacities in researchers, health workers and civil society personnel working at community level to use participatory methods for research, training and programme support.

Finding the Spaces for Change: A Power Analysis

Gaventa, G. IDS Bulletin Volume 37 Number 6 November 2006 ,2006

Around the world, new spaces and opportunities are emerging for citizen engagement in policy and governance processes. Yet opportunities for participation do not automatically translate into spaces for change. Much depends on the power dynamics that surround and infuse them, shaping who participates, where and with what result. This article argues that that spaces, places (from local to global) and forms of power can be visually and analytically linked together in a ‘power cube’ which can be used to assess the possibilities of transformative action in various settings.

La Investigación Acción Participativa (IAP) en los estudios de psicología política y de género. (PAR in political, psychological, and gender studies)

Obando-Salazar O,2006

El articulo se estructura en tres partes: un resumen sobre los fundamentos teóricos de la IA y su significado para el desarrollo de la propuesta latinoamericana de IAP, (1.1) con sus antecedentes teóricos, (1.2) paradigmáticos y (1.3) los criterios de validación. Segundo, una síntesis de aportes de algunos teóricos pioneros de las tendencias de la IA (2.1) americana, (2.2) alemana, (2.3) de la investigación feminista y (2.4) de la propuesta latinoamericana, la IAP. Tercero, una caracterización de la IAP como método de intervención, (3.1) con sus características, (3.2)

Meeting report: Participatory methods for a people centred health system: Training workshop, Bagamoyo Tanzania, 28 February-4 March 2006


The regional training workshop on participatory methods for a people centred health system was hosted by the regional network for equity in health in east and southern Africa (EQUINET) , TARSC, Ifakara and CHESSORE in Bagamoyo Tanzania from February 28- 3 March 2006. It aimed to build skills, share experiences and strengthen work on participatory methods for people centred health systems.

Participatory action research: considerations for ethical review

Khanlou N; Peter E ,2005

This paper addresses the distinctive nature of participatory action research in relation to ethical review requirements.

Reflections on the Uses of the ‘Power Cube’ Approach for Analyzing the Spaces, Places and Dynamics of Civil Society Participation and Engagement

Gaventa, J CFP evaluation series 2003-2006: no 4 Mfp Breed Netwerk,2005

The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief description of the ‘power cube’ approach and to provide reflections on its use as an approach for power analysis in relation to the spaces and dynamics of civil society participation. The audience is primarily trainers, applied analysts, donors and civil society practitioners who want to develop their own approaches to power analysis.

Participatory action research: the Indian Family Stories Project.

Garwick A; Auger S ,2003

The article shared experiences and lessons learned from utilizing a participatory action approach in a series of five sub projects within the Indian Family Stories Project. The importance of community engagement, networking, contextualization of the activities, feedback and building a sustainable community resources were issues which were raised in the paper. The paper raised that community-based research projects are critically needed to reduce health disparities and ensure the delivery of health care services that are culturally appropriate and relevant to families and communities.

QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PRACTICE A Guide for Social Science Students and Researchers

Ritchie J; Lewis J,2003

This downloadable book covers a wide range of topics on the foundations, applications and design issues of qualitative research. It also includes chapters on in-depth interviews and focus group discussions, analysis and reporting.

‘Barefoot Research: A Workers' Manual for Organising On Work Security

Keith M; Brophy J; Kirby P; Rosskam E,2002

The manual is a practical tool, designed to be of assistance to workers and union officials, showing how they can probe to discover whether they have work security, and if not how they can go about obtaining it. Information is rarely neutral, and it is rarely appropriate to rely on others to collect, analyse and disseminate information on which practices and policies should be based. If workers want basic security, they must be involved in collecting the information, analysing it and using it in ways they determine, and the manual provides methods for this.

How to make a pocket chart and more examples of how to use it


This text explains how to use a pocket chart, a participatory investigative tool used to collect and tabulate data from the community level, such as where people collect water within networks of information exchange. Poster-size charts contain "pockets" of cloth or paper inserted in each cell in a matrix, with simple drawings identifying the subject of each row or column. Participants can also use it to "vote" on topics, such as health service features, by placing counters in the pocket that indicates their situation or preference.

Participatory Reflection and Action Methods

IIED. Appendix in 'Whose Eden? An Overview of Community Approaches to Wildlife Management', IIED and ODA, London, July 1994. ,1999

This document is an appendix to a book on community approaches to wildlife management. The appendix includes information about the the different ways participatpry reflection and action (PRA) has been used, its common principles, emphasizes the importance of participatory enquiry and collective analysis, and lists the range of tools available to this approach. It also gives some tips on how to implement a PRA programme.

A Handbook for Participatory Action Researchers

Danley, K S and Ellison, M L. Systems and Psychosocial Advances Research Center Publications and Presentations. 470,1999

This handbook provides guidelines for conducting participatory action research (PAR) with people who have psychiatric disabilities. Although the principles, strategies, examples and learning are drawn from a particular PAR project with people who have a particular disability, the strategies described could be applied in PAR with any other population.

Ethical principles for the conduct of participatory research in the North

ACUNS ,1997

The article outlined the 20 principles intended to encourage the development of co-operation and mutual respect between researchers and people involved.

Pair wise ranking made easy

Russell T,1997

This text explains how to do pair wise ranking, a participatory method for deciding on shared priorities. Each item on a list is compared with the other items on the list in a systematic way. Each choice is compared with all others, one by one. The final ranking and the information shared during implementation both contribute to learning.

PLA Notes 24: Critical Reflections from Practice

Cornwall, A (editor) International Institute of Environment and Development (IIED), United Kingdom, October 1995,1995

This special issue of PLA Notes brings together social anthropologists, policy makers, NGO development workers, economists, ecologists and trainers to reflect critically on the practice of PRA. The range of articles in this issue highlight different perspectives on the successes and challenges of participatory reflection and action, and offer some useful case studies for reflection. Concerns identified include: lack of definition, confusion of objectives, over emphasis on the importance of methods, political positioning of participatory research, ethical issues and the impact

Research for Social Justice: Some North-South Convergences, Plenary Address at the Southern Sociological Society Meeting, Atlanta, April 8, 1995

Fals-Borda O ,1995

The address focused on the social justice and the role social scientists play to achieve it, particularly in Colombia. PAR has helped in understanding conflictual social processes and re-channelling collective energies towards a better course of action for justice and equity. Four guidelines for field research and scientific reporting are outlined: filling in the distance between subject and object, applying narratives, not depending solely on own culture to interpret facts and not imposing own scientific style when communicating results.

Participatory research on workers' health

Laurell AC, Noriega M, Martínez S, Villegas J ,1992

This paper presents action oriented participatory research using a collective questionnaire on characteristics of the labour process, risks and health damage for workers in a steel factory in Mexico. It was implemented by research institutions and trade unions. The paper presents a comparison between the information found on risks, health damage and the risks-health damage relationship found with the collective questionnaire and the findings from use of an individual questionnaire applied at the same steel factory. The results from the two methods were very similar.

Review of Action and Knowledge: Breaking the Monopoly with Participatory Action Research Orlando Fals-Borda and Mohammad Anisur Rahman (Eds.) 1991. New York: Apex Press

Pyrch, T Canadian Journal for the Study of Adult Education, 5(2), 66-71.,1991

This article reviews one of the most seminal books in the history of PAR and a major contributor to the liberatory tradition in adult education. Written by Orlando Fals-Borda, a Colombian scholar and activist who worked mainly in Latin America, and Mohammad Anisur Rahman from Bangladesh. The book contains six vivencias or process studies of PAR in the Americas, Asia and Africa contributed by long time practitioners in those continents. This is a gold mine of theory and practice. The review summarises the book by chapter, giving brief summaries and case studies.

White Privilege Checklist

McIntosh P,1989

The “white privilege” checklist developed by Peggy McIntosh supports members of the dominant culture or value system to better understand the unspoken advantages they carry by virtue of their race and how it can affect work with other cultures. This exercise can be used to facilitate a discussion of what unearned privilege means, and how that may affect working relationships with diverse cultures.

The Application of Participatory Action-Research in Latin America

Fals-Borda O,1987

This paper draws on field studies in Nicaragua, Colombia and Mexico to explore the theory and action of PAR as a methods used since the 1970s that challenges established academic routines while also generating and systematising knowledge. It identifies PAR as a comprehensive and human paradigm in the social sciences using a series of techniques to combine knowledge and power.

Training for Transformation 1-3: A handbook for community workers Books 1-3

Hope, A and Timmel, S; Practical Action Publishing,1984

Training for Transformation consists of three volumes designed to assist field workers who are encouraging the development of self-reliant creative communities. It puts forward methodologies that encourage all to participate in making this world a more just place to live in. The book integrates the approach and methods of Paulo Freire, Manfred Max Neef’s understanding of fundamental human needs, group methods which are essential for participatory education, organizational development which stresses self reliance, and social analysis to help groups find the root causes of problems.